Protein synthesis

Protein is essential to move a thing of a human body.
Then how will the protein be constructed?

The plan necessary to make protein is put away to DNA which there is in the nucleus which there is to one one cell in form of "the base sequence".The base sequence is a thing of form shown with A(adenine), T(thymine), C(cyanine), four kinds of bases called G(guanine).

On the other hand, it is ribosome outside the nuclei to play a role to really compose the protein. In other words the real work is carried out outside the nucleus that DNA is put away. Therefore, it is necessary to carry a plan shown with base sequence to ribosome when I compose protein.

However, a certain plan is very valuable in DNA. Therefore I copy a necessary part of the information of a certain plan on DNA and must carry the information to the ribosome. At this time, it is called RNA to take a role to carry information.

Then let's watch a series of flows before protein being made!

Flow of the proteosynthesis

At first the base sequence that is necessary for composition of the protein which I want to make on DNA is copied by RNA when it is necessary to compose protein in the body of the creature. "Transcription" means this copied thing and calls the RNA which copied base sequence of DNA "message RNA(messengerRNA:mRNA)".tRNA is a mule、mRNA is a letter。

Then, the mRNA appears outside a nucleus and delivers information to ribosome.

However, nonsense, the base sequence just removes a code of the base sequence and begins it, and an effect is seen. Therefore a code of the base sequence (base sequence of the = mRNA) that I copied from DNA beforehand reads it, and a necessary amino acid is bound with ribosome according to it, and protein is made.

The process when protein is made from these a series of mRNA is called "translation".
It means that it reads a codon of base sequence of the mRNA namely the RNA to decipher a code of the base sequence.
At this time, separately from mRNA, help of one kind of RNA is already necessary. It is "transfer RNA", is also called "tRNA".
The tRNA takes a role to carry an amino acid according to the contents of a codon equalling mRNA.

In this way, in the process when protein is composed by base sequence on DNA, two kinds of RNA called mRNA and the tRNA acts.

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